Patient Blood Management Guidelines: Module 2



1 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australasian Society of Blood Transfusion (ASBT) (2001). Clinical practice guidelines on the use of blood components, NHMRC, Canberra, Australia
2 Anonymous (2011). Technical report on perioperative patient blood management: Volume 1a – Review of the evidence (questions 1, 2 and 4–9). National Blood Authority, Canberra, Australia.
3 Anonymous (2011). Technical report on perioperative patient blood management: Volume 2a – Appendixes (questions 1, 2 and 4–9). National Blood Authority, Canberra, Australia.
4 Anonymous (2011). Technical report on perioperative patient blood management: Volume 1b – Review of the evidence (question 3). National Blood Authority, Canberra, Australia.
5 Anonymous (2011). Technical report on perioperative patient blood management: Volume 2b – Appendixes (question 3). National Blood Authority, Canberra, Australia.
6 Douketis JD, Berger PB, Dunn AS, Jaffer AK, Spyropoulos AC, Becker RC, et al. (2008). The perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. st_uids=18574269
7 Baker RI, Coughlin PB, Gallus AS, Harper PL, Salem HH and Wood EM (2004). Warfarin reversal: consensus guidelines, on behalf of the Australasian Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Medical Journal of Australia. st_uids=15516194
8 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1999). A guide to the development, implementation and evaluation of clinical practice guidelines, NHMRC, Canberra, Australia
9 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2007). NHMRC standards and procedures for externally developed guidelines. NHMRC, Canberra, Australia.
10 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2009). NHMRC levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. NHMRC, Canberra, Australia. guidelines2.htm
11 Ferraris VA, Ferraris SP, Saha SP, Hessel EA, Haan CK, Royston BD, et al. (2007). Perioperative blood transfusion and blood conservation in cardiac surgery: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists clinical practice guideline. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 83(5 Suppl):S27-86.
12 Brevig J, McDonald J, Zelinka ES, Gallagher T, Jin R and Grunkemeier GL (2009). Blood transfusion reduction in cardiac surgery: multidisciplinary approach at a community hospital. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 87(2):532-539.
13 Bui LL, Smith AJ, Bercovici M, Szalai JP and Hanna SS (2002). Minimising blood loss and transfusion requirements in hepatic resection. HPB 4(1):5-10. ype=abstract
14 DeAnda A, Baker KM, Roseff SD, Green Ja, McCarthy H, Aron T, et al. (2006). Developing a blood conservation program in cardiac surgery. American Journal of Medical Quality 21(4):230-237.
15 Freedman J, Luke K, Escobar M, Vernich L and Chiavetta JA (2008). Experience of a network of transfusion coordinators for blood conservation (Ontario Transfusion Coordinators [ONTraC]). Transfusion 48(2):237-250.
16 Freedman J, Luke K, Monga N, Lincoln S, Koen R, Escobar M, et al. (2005). A provincial program of blood conservation: The Ontario Transfusion Coordinators (ONTraC). Transfusion and Apheresis Science 33(3):343-349.
17 Bolan CD, Rick ME and Polly DW (2001). Transfusion medicine management for reconstructive spinal repair in a patient with von Willebrand’s disease and a history of heavy surgical bleeding. Spine 26(23):E552-556.
18 DeFoe GR, Ross CS, Olmstead EM, Surgenor SD, Fillinger MP, Groom RC, et al. (2001). Lowest hematocrit on bypass and adverse outcomes associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 71(3): 769-776.
19 Gombotz H, Rehak PH, Shander A and Hofmann A (2007). Blood use in elective surgery: the Austrian benchmark study. Transfusion 47(8):1468-1480.
20 Koch CG, Weng Y-s, Zhou SX, Savino JS, Mathew JP, Hsu PH, et al. (2003). Prevalence of risk factors, and not gender per se, determines short- and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 17(5):585-593.
21 Kulier A, Levin J, Moser R, Rumpold-Seitlinger G, Tudor IC, Snyder-Ramos Sa, et al. (2007). Impact of preoperative anemia on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation 116(5):471-479.
22 Lee R-J, Shih K-N, Lee S-H, Shyu K-G, Chiu C-Z, Lin S-C, et al. (2007). Predictors of long-term outcomes in patients after elective stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Heart and vessels 22(2):99-103.
23 Parr KG, Patel MA, Dekker R, Levin R, Glynn R, Avorn J, et al. (2003). Multivariate predictors of blood product use in cardiac surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 17(2):176-181.
24 Rady MY, Ryan T and Starr NJ (1998). Perioperative determinants of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Critical care medicine 26(2):225-235.
25 Surgenor SD, DeFoe GR, Fillinger MP, Likosky DS, Groom RC, Clark C, et al. (2006). Intraoperative red blood cell transfusion during coronary artery bypass graft surgery increases the risk of postoperative low-output heart failure. Circulation 114(1 Suppl):I43-48.
26 Swenne CL, Lindholm C, Borowiec J and Carlsson M (2004). Surgical-site infections within 60 days of coronary artery by-pass graft surgery. Journal of Hospital Infection 57(1):14-24.
27 Zindrou D, Taylor KM and Bagger JP (2002). Preoperative haemoglobin concentration and mortality rate after coronary artery bypass surgery. Lancet 359(9319):1747-1748.
28 Conlon NP, Bale EP, Herbison GP and McCarroll M (2008). Postoperative anemia and quality of life after primary hip arthroplasty in patients over 65 years old. Anesthesia and analgesia 106(4):1056-1061.
29 Foss NB, Kristensen MT and Kehlet H (2008). Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery. Age and ageing 37(2):173-178.
30 Halm EA, Wang JJ, Boockvar K, Penrod J, Silberzweig SB, Magaziner J, et al. (2004). The effect of perioperative anemia on clinical and functional outcomes in patients with hip fracture. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 18(6):369-374. ype=abstract
31 Meltomaa SS, Mäkinen JI, Taalikka MO and Helenius HY (2000). Incidence, risk factors and outcome of infection in a 1-year hysterectomy cohort: a prospective follow-up study. Journal of Hospital Infection 45(3):211-217.
32 Myers E, O’Grady P, Grady PO and Dolan AM (2004). The influence of preclinical anaemia on outcome following total hip replacement. Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery 124(10):699-701.
33 Wallis JP, Wells AW, Whitehead S and Brewster N (2005). Recovery from post-operative anaemia. Transfusion Medicine 15(5):413-418.
34 Wolters U, Wolf T, Stützer H, Schröder T and Pichlmaier H (1997). Risk factors, complications, and outcome in surgery: a multivariate analysis. European Journal of Surgery (Acta Chirurgica) 163(8):563-568.
35 Bell ML, Grunwald GK, Baltz JH, McDonald GO, Bell MR, Grover FL, et al. (2008). Does preoperative hemoglobin independently predict short-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery? Annals of Thoracic Surgery 86(5):1415-1423.
36 Cladellas M, Bruguera J, Comín J, Vila J, de Jaime E, Martí J, et al. (2006). Is pre-operative anaemia a risk marker for in-hospital mortality and morbidity after valve replacement? European Heart Journal 27(9):1093-1099.
37 Fang WC, Helm RE, Krieger KH, Rosengart TK, DuBois WJ, Sason C, et al. (1997). Impact of minimum hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass on mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. Circulation 96(9 Suppl):II-194-199.
38 Ferraris VA and Ferraris SP (1996). Risk factors for postoperative morbidity. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 111(4):731-738;discussion 738-741.
39 Habib RH, Zacharias A, Schwann TA, Riordan CJ, Durham SJ and Shah A (2003). Adverse effects of low hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass in the adult: should current practice be changed? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 125(6):1438-1450.
40 Habib RH, Zacharias A, Schwann TA, Riordan CJ, Engoren M, Durham SJ, et al. (2005). Role of hemodilutional anemia and transfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in renal injury after coronary revascularization: implications on operative outcome. Critical care medicine 33(8):1749-1756.
41 Higgins TL, Estafanous FG, Loop FD, Beck GJ, Blum JM and Paranandi L (1992). Stratification of morbidity and mortality outcome by preoperative risk factors in coronary artery bypass patients. A clinical severity score. Journal of the American Medical Association 267(17):2344-2348.
42 Karkouti K, Djaiani G, Borger MA, Beattie WS, Fedorko L, Wijeysundera D, et al. (2005). Low hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased risk of perioperative stroke in cardiac surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 80(4):1381-1387.
43 Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN and Beattie WS (2008). Risk associated with preoperative anemia in cardiac surgery: a multicenter cohort study. Circulation 117(4):478-484.
44 Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN, Yau TM, Callum JL, Cheng DC, Crowther M, et al. (2009). Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: focus on modifiable risk factors. Circulation 119(4):495-502.
45 Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN, Yau TM, McCluskey SA, van Rensburg A and Beattie WS (2008). The influence of baseline hemoglobin concentration on tolerance of anemia in cardiac surgery. Transfusion 48(4):666-672.
46 Litmathe J, Boeken U, Feindt P and Gams E (2003). Predictors of homologous blood transfusion for patients undergoing open heart surgery. The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon 51(1):17-21.
47 McKechnie RS, Smith D, Montoye C, Kline-Rogers E, O’Donnell MJ, DeFranco AC, et al. (2004). Prognostic implication of anemia on in-hospital outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 110(3):271-277.
48 Reinecke H (2003). Haemoglobin-related mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. European Heart Journal 24(23):2142-2150.
49 Beattie WS, Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN and Tait G (2009). Risk associated with preoperative anemia in noncardiac surgery: a single-center cohort study. Anesthesiology 110(3):574-581.
50 Carson JL, Noveck H, Berlin JA and Gould SA (2002). Mortality and morbidity in patients with very low postoperative Hb levels who decline blood transfusion. Transfusion 42(7):812-818.
51 Dunkelgrun M, Hoeks SE, Welten GMJM, Vidakovic R, Winkel TA, Schouten O, et al. (2008). Anemia as an independent predictor of perioperative and long-term cardiovascular outcome in patients scheduled for elective vascular surgery. American Journal of Cardiology 101(8):1196-1200.
52 Gruson KI, Aharonoff GB, Egol KA, Zuckerman JD and Koval KJ (2002). The relationship between admission hemoglobin level and outcome after hip fracture. Journal of orthopaedic trauma 16(1):39-44.
53 Lawrence VA, Silverstein JH, Cornell JE, Pederson T, Noveck H and Carson JL (2003). Higher Hb level is associated with better early functional recovery after hip fracture repair. Transfusion 43(12):1717-1722.
54 Lunn JN and Elwood PC (1970). Anaemia and surgery. BMJ 3(5714):71-73.
55 Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Orav EJ, Cook EF and Lee TH (1998). The association of intraoperative factors with the development of postoperative delirium. American Journal of Medicine 105(5):380-384.
56 Rogers SO, Kilaru RK, Hosokawa P, Henderson WG, Zinner MJ and Khuri SF (2007). Multivariable predictors of postoperative venous thromboembolic events after general and vascular surgery: results from the patient safety in surgery study. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 204(6):1211-1221.
57 Saleh E, McClelland DBL, Hay A, Semple D and Walsh TS (2007). Prevalence of anaemia before major joint arthroplasty and the potential impact of preoperative investigation and correction on perioperative blood transfusions. British journal of anaesthesia 99(6):801-808.
58 Stoller ML, Wolf JS and St Lzein MA (1994). Estimated blood loss and transfusion rates associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Journal of Urology 152(6 Pt 1):1977-1981.
59 Wu W-C, Schifftner TL, Henderson WG, Eaton CB, Poses RM, Uttley G, et al. (2007). Preoperative hematocrit levels and postoperative outcomes in older patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association 297(22):2481-2488.
60 Shander A, Fink A, Javidroozi M, Erhard J, Farmer SL, Corwin H, et al. (2011). Appropriateness of Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusion: The International Consensus Conference on Transfusion Outcomes. Transfusion Medicine Reviews.
61 Koch CG, Li L, Duncan AI, Mihaljevic T, Cosgrove DM, Loop FD, et al. (2006). Morbidity and mortality risk associated with red blood cell and blood-component transfusion in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Critical care medicine 34(6):1608-1616.
62 Koch CG, Li L, Duncan AI, Mihaljevic T, Loop FD, Starr NJ, et al. (2006). Transfusion in coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with reduced long-term survival. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 81(5):1650-1657.
63 Kuduvalli M, Oo AY, Newall N, Grayson AD, Jackson M, Desmond MJ, et al. (2005). Effect of peri-operative red blood cell transfusion on 30-day and 1-year mortality following coronary artery bypass surgery. European journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 27(4):592-598.
64 Leal-Noval SR (2001). Transfusion of blood components and postoperative infection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Chest 119(5):1461-1468.
65 Murphy GJ, Reeves BC, Rogers CA, Rizvi SI, Culliford L and Angelini GD (2007). Increased mortality, postoperative morbidity, and cost after red blood cell transfusion in patients having cardiac surgery. Circulation 116(22):2544-2552.
66 Ranucci M, Bozzetti G, Ditta A, Cotza M, Carboni G and Ballotta A (2008). Surgical reexploration after cardiac operations: why a worse outcome? Annals of Thoracic Surgery 86(5):1557-1562.
67 Scott BH, Seifert FC and Grimson R (2009). Blood transfusion is associated with increased resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Annals of cardiac anaesthesia 11(1):15-19.
68 Augoustides JG, Pochettino A, McGarvey ML, Cowie D, Weiner J, Gambone AJ, et al. (2006). Clinical predictors for mortality in adults undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Annals of cardiac anaesthesia 9(2):114-119.
69 Engoren MC, Habib RH, Zacharias A, Schwann TA, Riordan CJ and Durham SJ (2002). Effect of blood transfusion on long-term survival after cardiac operation. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 74(4):1180-1186.
70 Surgenor SD, Kramer RS, Olmstead EM, Ross CS, Sellke FW, Likosky DS, et al. (2009). The association of perioperative red blood cell transfusions and decreased long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Anesthesia and analgesia 108(6):1741-1746.
71 Bernard AC, Davenport DL, Chang PK, Vaughan TB and Zwischenberger JB (2009). Intraoperative transfusion of 1 U to 2 U packed red blood cells is associated with increased 30-day mortality, surgical-site infection, pneumonia, and sepsis in general surgery patients. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 208(5):931-937, 937.e931-932; discussion 938-939.
72 Bursi F, Barbieri A, Politi L, A., Malagoli A, Grimaldi T, et al. (2009). Perioperative red blood cell transfusion and outcome in stable patients after elective major vascular surgery. European journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 37(3):311-318.
73 Dunne JR, Malone D, Tracy JK, Gannon C and Napolitano LM (2002). Perioperative anemia: an independent risk factor for infection, mortality, and resource utilization in surgery. Journal of Surgical Research 102(2):237-244.
74 Engoren M, Mitchell E, Perring P and Sferra J (2008). The effect of erythrocyte blood transfusions on survival after surgery for hip fracture. Journal of Trauma 65(6):1411-1415.
75 Silva JM, Cezario TA, Toledo DO, Magalhães DD, Pinto MAC and Victoria LGF (2008). Complications and prognosis of intraoperative blood transfusion. Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 58(5):454- 461, 447-454.
76 Chang H, Hall GA, Geerts WH, Greenwood C, McLeod RS and Sher GD (2000). Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative bacterial infection. Vox sanguinis 78(1):13-18.
77 Halm EA, Wang JJ, Boockvar K, Penrod J, Silberzweig SB, Magaziner J, et al. (2003). Effects of blood transfusion on clinical and functional outcomes in patients with hip fracture. Transfusion 43(10):1358-1365.
78 Rüttinger D, Wolf H, Küchenhoff H, Jauch K-W and Hartl WH (2007). Red cell transfusion: an essential factor for patient prognosis in surgical critical illness? Shock 28(2):165-171.
79 Banbury MK, Brizzio ME, Rajeswaran J, Lytle BW and Blackstone EH (2006). Transfusion increases the risk of postoperative infection after cardiovascular surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 202(1):131-138.
80 Chelemer SB, Prato BS, Cox PM, O’Connor GT and Morton JR (2002). Association of bacterial infection and red blood cell transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 73(1):138-142.
81 Hortal J, Muñoz P, Cuerpo G, Litvan H, Rosseel PM and Bouza E (2009). Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe. Critical Care 13(3):R80-R80. ype=abstract
82 Koch CG, Khandwala F, Li L, Estafanous FG, Loop FD and Blackstone EH (2006). Persistent effect of red cell transfusion on health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 82(1):13-20.
83 Olsen MA, Sundt TM, Lawton JS, Damiano RJ, Hopkins-Broyles D, Lock-Buckley P, et al. (2003). Risk factors for leg harvest surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 126(4):992-999.
84 Rogers MAM, Blumberg N, Heal JM and Hicks GL (2007). Increased risk of infection and mortality in women after cardiac surgery related to allogeneic blood transfusion. Journal of Women’s Health 16(10):1412-1420.
85 Bucerius J, Gummert JF, Borger MA, Walther T, Doll N, Onnasch JF, et al. (2003). Stroke after cardiac surgery: a risk factor analysis of 16,184 consecutive adult patients. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 75(2):472-478.
86 Koch CG, Li L, David R, Duncan AI, Gillinov AM and Blackstone EH (2006). Red cell transfusion is associated with an increased risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 82(5):1747-1756.
87 García-Alvarez F, Al-Ghanem R, García-Alvarez I, López-Baisson A and Bernal M (2009). Risk factors for postoperative infections in patients with hip fracture treated by means of Thompson arthroplasty. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 50(1):51-55.
88 Weber EWG, Slappendel R, Prins MH, Van Der Schaaf DB, Durieux ME and Strümper D (2005). Perioperative blood transfusions and delayed wound healing after hip replacement surgery: effects on duration of hospitalization. Anesthesia and analgesia 100(5):1416-1421, table of contents.
89 BuSaba NY and Schaumberg DA (2007). Predictors of prolonged length of stay after major elective head and neck surgery. The Laryngoscope 117(10):1756-1763.
90 Bracey AW, Radovancevic R, Riggs SA, Houston S, Cozart H, Vaughn WK, et al. (1999). Lowering the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in coronary artery bypass procedures: effect on patient outcome. Transfusion 39(10):1070-1077.
91 Bush RL, Pevec WC and Holcroft JW (1997). A prospective, randomized trial limiting perioperative red blood cell transfusions in vascular patients. American journal of surgery 174(2):143-148.
92 Carson JL, Terrin ML, Barton FB, Aaron R, Greenburg AG, Heck DA, et al. (1998). A pilot randomized trial comparing symptomatic vs. hemoglobin-level-driven red blood cell transfusions following hip fracture. Transfusion 38(6):522-529.
93 Foss NB, Kristensen MT, Jensen PS, Palm H, Krasheninnikoff M and Kehlet H (2009). The effects of liberal versus restrictive transfusion thresholds on ambulation after hip fracture surgery. Transfusion 49(2):227-234.
94 Grover M, Talwalkar S, Casbard A, Boralessa H, Contreras M, Brett S, et al. (2006). Silent myocardial ischaemia and haemoglobin concentration: a randomized controlled trial of transfusion strategy in lower limb arthroplasty. Vox sanguinis 90(2):105-112.
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96 Okuyama M, Ikeda K, Shibata T, Tsukahara Y, Kitada M and Shimano T (2005). Preoperative iron supplementation and intraoperative transfusion during colorectal cancer surgery. Surgery today 35(1):36-40.
97 Cuenca J, García-Erce JA, Martínez F, Cardona R, Pérez-Serrano L and Muñoz M (2007). Preoperative haematinics and transfusion protocol reduce the need for transfusion after total knee replacement. International Journal of Surgery 5(2):89-94.
98 Aufricht C, Ties M, Wimmer M, Haschke F, Pietschnig B and Herkner K (1994). Iron supplementation in children after cardiopulmonary bypass for surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Pediatric cardiology 15(4):167-169.
99 Crosby L, Palarski VA, Cottington E and Cmolik B (1994). Iron supplementation for acute blood loss anemia after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Heart & Lung 23(6):493-499.
100 Del Campo C, Lukman H, Mehta H and McKenzie FN (1982). Iron therapy after cardiac operation: one prescription less? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 84(4):631-633.
101 Mundy GM, Birtwistle SJ and Power RA (2005). The effect of iron supplementation on the level of haemoglobin after lower limb arthroplasty. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British volume 87(2):213-217.
102 Weatherall M and Maling TJ (2004). Oral iron therapy for anaemia after orthopaedic surgery: randomized clinical trial. ANZ journal of surgery 74(12):1049-1051.
103 Muñoz M, Naveira E, Seara J, Palmer JH, Cuenca J and García-Erce JA (2006). Role of parenteral iron in transfusion requirements after total hip replacement. A pilot study. Transfusion Medicine 16(2):137-142.
104 Karkouti K, McCluskey SA, Ghannam M, Salpeter M-J, Quirt I and Yau TM (2006). Intravenous iron and recombinant erythropoietin for the treatment of postoperative anemia. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 53(1):11-19.
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121 Chu MWA, Wilson SR, Novick RJ, Stitt LW and Quantz MA (2004). Does clopidogrel increase blood loss following coronary artery bypass surgery? Annals of Thoracic Surgery 78(5):1536-1541.
122 Gerrah R, Elami A, Stamler A, Smirnov A and Stoeger Z (2005). Preoperative aspirin administration improves oxygenation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest 127(5):1622-1626.
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125 Kamran M, Ahmed A, Dar MI and Khan AB (2008). Effect of aspirin on postoperative bleeding in coronary artery bypass grafting. Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 14(4):224-229.
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128 Picker SM, Kaleta T, Hekmat K, Kampe S and Gathof BS (2007). Antiplatelet therapy preceding coronary artery surgery: implications for bleeding, transfusion requirements and outcome. European journal of anaesthesiology 24(4):332-339.
129 Shim JK, Choi YS, Oh YJ, Bang SO, Yoo KJ and Kwak YL (2007). Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 134(1):59-64.
130 Song S-W, Youn Y-N, Yi G, Lee S and Yoo K-J (2008). Effects of continuous administration of clopidogrel before off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Circulation Journal 72(4):626-632.
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